This type of hair loss is the most common in women. In this case, baldness does not capture individual areas, but the entire surface of the head and sometimes even spreads to the hair on the body.
This form of diffuse baldness is quite rare, the first reports about it appeared only at the beginning of the 21st century. All men and women affected by this disease have a specific gene called hairless. Unfortunately, no treatment methods for this pathology have yet been developed. Even transplantation would be ineffective here since the patient himself would still be a follicle donor, all of whose bulbs are subject to the destructive influence of the hairless gene.
Diffuse baldness is normal
Sometimes this type of hair loss can also be a physiologically normal state:
- in young children, as a manifestation of the development of immunity;
- in adolescents 15-19 years, as a sign of hormonal adjustment;
- in people over 65, as an age-related change;
Intensive hair loss is common in women who have just given birth. This is also a variant of the norm. During pregnancy, the content of estrogen (female sex hormones) is constantly at a high level. And the effect of estrogen on hair follicles is to prolong the stage of their active development. Accordingly, after childbirth, the concentration of estrogen decreases and many bulbs almost immediately enter the dormant phase. This causes profuse hair loss.
The best treatment recommendation here is anticipation. The bulbs will complete their natural cycle of development, will again go into the active phase and the hair will grow back on its own.
This type of hair loss is associated with permanent damage to the bulbs by factors that act locally, directly on the scalp:
- the use of aggressive compounds for curling hair;
- chemically active compounds for coloring or bleaching hair;
- air pollution in industrial areas;
- frequent hypothermia of the scalp.
To avoid encountering these factors, use high-quality cosmetics, follow the instructions for its use, protect your hair with hats.
Sometimes the cause of hair loss is too active care for them:
- frequent and prolonged use of the hairdryer;
- intensive use of small combs;
- the constant wearing of hair-tightening hairstyles;
To prevent these disorders, it is necessary to avoid hair overdrying, give them a break from constant strong combing and dragging hairstyles.
Symptomatic diffuse alopecia
This type of baldness got its name because the cause of hair loss here is some kind of third-party disorder in the body. Therefore, the main principle of the treatment of symptomatic hair loss is the search and elimination of the disease that led to the development of this symptom. But regardless of the cause of baldness, its mechanism is a failure of the normal follicle development cycle. Depending on the phase of the cycle at which the failure occurred, two groups of diffuse alopecia are distinguished:
- telogen (bulbs early enter the dormant phase, losing hair);
- anagenic (hair falls out in the growth phase).
It is caused by slowly acting factors:
- constant psycho-emotional overload;
This will help normalize sleep and wakefulness, fight stress, contact a psychologist or relax with a change of scenery.
- diseases of the endocrine glands;
- pathology of internal organs;
- anemia of various origins;
- prolonged intoxication;
Here you will need the help of a specialist. Consult a doctor and undergo a full course of treatment for the identified disease.
- refusal to take hormonal contraceptives;
- improper use of certain pharmaceuticals;
Here again, a medical consultation is needed. The gynecologist will tell you how to safely stop taking contraceptives, and the attending physician will choose an individual therapy regimen.
- a defective diet deficient in vitamins or proteins;
- insufficient intake of iron, calcium and other macros- and microelements with food;
In this case, you need to contact a nutritionist. It will correct eating disorders and balance your menu.
With this type of hair is lost quickly and massively. Sometimes this can lead to total baldness in just a few days. This means that the causes of such abundant hair loss should have a pronounced intensity:
- high doses of radiation;
- acute poisoning with pesticides or other toxins;
In such situations, we are talking about the patient’s life, so hair loss is a minor violation. The patient must urgently be hospitalized in the intensive care unit. And when the critical period passes, the hair will begin to grow anew.
- aggressive pharmaceuticals, such as cytostatics, which are used in oncotherapy;
Here, baldness is a side effect that you have to put up with. Temporary hair loss can be hidden under the wig, and after treatment, the hairstyle will quickly regain its splendor.
An important feature of diffuse alopecia is its reversibility. It is due to the fact that in such cases only the hair itself falls out, and the follicles remain unaffected. Therefore, after 3-9 months after eliminating the primary disease or the effect that caused baldness, the bulbs will give new hair growth. There are also a number of tools to accelerate hair growth. We have listed them below in the section of focal alopecia since they will be the same for these two types of baldness.
Focal (nest) alopecia
The main difference here is hair loss in certain areas that have a rounded shape, which are called "foci". It is believed that the cause of this is an autoimmune disorder, that is, a malfunction in the immune system. This malfunction causes the immune system to recognize the cells of the hair follicles as foreign. This error is associated with the activation of special, previously passive genes. They are responsible for the production of specific immune proteins that attack these cells, leading to their degradation and death, which is visually manifested by hair loss.
There are a number of provoking factors that translate these genes into active mode:
- severe stress (very often);
- acute infectious diseases;
- surgical interventions under general anesthesia;
- massive and prolonged antibiotic therapy;
- vaccination with low-quality material.
Means for the treatment of focal alopecia
Autoimmune damage to the follicles leads to inflammation, therefore, anti-inflammatory drugs-corticosteroids are used to suppress it locally and systemically. The immune mechanism of the development of nesting baldness necessitates the use of immunomodulators (Eleutherococcus, zinc compounds, sorbitol, etc.). Violations of protein metabolism can be corrected with octopamine or glutamic acid. Wobenzym, piracetam, active in or pentoxifylline will help improve blood circulation to the scalp and hair follicles.
Stress-protective therapy is also very important:
- sedatives to reduce excessive psychological excitability;
- or vice versa, CNS stimulants for depressive disorders;
- and also in any cases - preparations of magnesium and B vitamins, necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system.
Common methods for focal and diffuse alopecia
Additional treatments are care products and physiotherapy, which include:
- medical cosmetics;
- laser treatment;
- Ultraviolet therapy;
- electrical stimulation;
- rejection of bad habits;
- full sleep.
Of the topical agents that are applied directly to the hair roots, you can use:
- multicomponent preparation, including livanol, dimexide and castor oil;
- various nutritional masks
- pilo lotions and shampoos for the prevention of hair loss;
- extracts of nettle, aloe and wheat germ;
- silicon ointments;
Of the latter, minoxidil is particularly distinguished. It effectively dilates the small capillary vessels that pass in the upper layers of the skin and nourish the hair follicles. This dramatically increases the flow of oxygen and biologically active substances. Such biochemical stimulation leads to an increase in the size of the bulb to the stage where it becomes able to enter the active phase and give growth to the hair shaft. Minoxidil is available as a 2% (for women) or 5% (for men) solution, for example, under the brand name Bosley.
Of the drugs taken orally and stimulating the restoration of hair follicles, use:
- vitamin and microelement complexes;
- retinoids - derivatives of vitamin A that improve cellular metabolism;
- agents that slow down the replacement of bulb cells with connective tissue (anthralen);
- peripheral circulation enhancers.
What to drink and eat to prevent hair loss?
Diet plays an important role in the health of hair and in accelerating its growth. A proper, balanced diet is an essential part of preventing baldness. Vitamins and minerals have already been mentioned above, but here we give a shortlist of products that will contribute to gaining a lush hairstyle:
- fresh vegetables and fruits;
- cereals from cereals;
- eggs and egg yolks;
- lean meat;
- nuts and legumes;
- and especially oily fish.